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Pandemic (H1N1) 2009: Treating Children

Illnesses caused by influenza virus infection are difficult to distinguish from illnesses caused by other respiratory pathogens based on symptoms alone. Young children are less likely to have typical influenza symptoms (e.g., fever and cough) and infants may present to medical care with fever and lethargy, and may not have cough or other respiratory symptoms or signs.

Influenza-associated deaths among children, while uncommon, do occur with seasonal influenza with an estimated average of approximately 92 influenza-related pediatric deaths each year in the United States. Some deaths in children have been associated with co-infection with influenza and Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA).